1. Purpose of the test
ADIAVET™ A/H1N1 (2009) REAL TIME kit is intended to detect the A/H1N1/2009 Pandemic Influenza
Virus (A/H1N1 Virus) using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology from nasal swab,
from allantoic or bronchial fluid and tissue specimens of pig, as well as from viral culture.
The swine flu is an important pig farm disease because it could lead to severe respiratory symptoms. It is
generally characterized by a high number of infected animals but a low mortality level. The disease is
due to a virus of the Influenza type A genus. The first isolation of an influenza virus on pig occurs in
1930 (Influenza type A, H1N1). In opposition to the human flu, Swine flu could spread in pig farms all
over the year. Three sub-types of Influenza type A virus can usually infect pigs: H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2.
H1N1 and H1N2 are enzootic in Europe.
Since the April 2009, the pandemic flue due to the new variant of the influenza virus A(H1N1) rapidly
spread in the worldwide human population. It is then important, for animal and human health, to
identify among influenzal infections that periodically affect pig farms, those related to the pandemic
influenza A/H1N1 in order to limit the disease spreading.
The detection of the virus is usually performed by viral culture on nasal swabs. Viral culture as well as
diagnostic tests based on the detection of nucleoprotein antigen (such as immunofluorescence staining
assay) can be carried out on lung sample. Viral culture has to be performed at an early stage of the
disease because the virus persists only few days at the lesions level.
Real time PCR can be an interesting, specific and sensitive alternative method to obtain a result in one
day if nasal swabs are taken on the early first clinical signs (exhaustion, fever, loss of appetite,
3. Description and purpose of the test
This test is based first on the reverse transcription (RT) of RNA into complementary DNA. Then, cDNA is
amplified (PCR) by a DNA polymerase using specific primers. Both enzymatic reactions occur in the
same tube (One-step RT-PCR).
Amplified products are detected in real-time thanks to a specific labelled hydrolysis probe (5’-
The ADIAVET™ A/H1N1 (2009) REAL TIME kit enables the simultaneous detection of:
– pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1/04/2009 (probe labelled in FAM),
– GAPDH, an internal control of extraction and amplification steps specific from an
endogenous RNA (probe labelled with a fluorochrome read in the same spectra as VIC
ADIAGENE validated the test using RNA purification kits (Qiagen, Macherey-Nagel). Other purification
kits can be used if they have been validated by the user.